Ethics – COMM11110


Ethics in relation to PR refers to a systematic analysis to help you distinguish right from wrong. And the nature or what should be valued. For public relations this includes values such as honesty, openness, loyalty, fair, respect, integrity, and forthright communication, (Bowan, 2007)

Organisations such as PRIA (Public Relations Institute Australia), MEAA Journalism and PRSA all have a code of ethics as. PRSA (The Public Relations Society of America) have six core values as follows (Wilcox, 2013):

  • Advocacy
  • Honesty
  • Expertise
  • Independence
  • Loyalty
  • Fairness



Most ethical issues are not black or white and rather fall into a grey area. Ethics in public relations begins with the individual and his or hers own value system and what they believe to be right or wrong, (Wilcox, 2013). For example, if I were a public relations practitioner for a company bidding for an upcoming PR campaign and I personally knew one of the members on the bid-assessment panel and had an idea of what they were looking for. I do not see this as unethical practice, but others might.

In my personal opinion, based on individual assessment, I believe that, yes it is an advantage I personally know one of the members on the panel, but no it is not an ‘unfair’ advantage. Networking in public relations is important and mingling with potential clients is common. In public relations your image is everything and driving conversations and building relationships with other industry professionals is advantageous, not unethical, (Macias, 2013).





Bowan, S, 2007, “Ethics and Public Relations”, Institute for Public Relations, viewed 19 May,

Macias, M, 2013, “How to apply PR skills at Networking events”, Ragan’s PR Daily, viewed 19 May,


Wilcox, D, Cameron, G, Reber, B, Shin, J 2013, “What is Ethics?” Think; Public Relations, 2013 edition, p. 184, Pearson



Logistics – Module 6 COMM11110

Logistics is a business planning framework for the management of material, service, information and capital flows. It includes the increasingly complex information, communication and control systems required in today’s business environment. This means having the right thing, at the right place, at the right time, (Helsinki, 1996).

Logistics are important in Public Relations as one minor detail mistake can dismantle a whole campaign. Behind the scenes of every company are the logistics, for example, wildlife rescue organisation, WIRES.



The first and crucial step in logistics is your budget. The budget usually consists of a detailed breakdown of which resources cost what and can usually be categorised into three sections; personnel costs, production costs, and administration costs, (Study Guide 2015). For a non-profit organisation like WIRES, the budget can become a challenge as they rely solely on donations. So they use volunteers (unpaid workers) as a way of minimising costs.



The next key factor to consider is your timeframe. This is a crucial part in the planning process and should highlight exactly when each tactic will be implemented. This can be visually represented on a Gantt chart illustrating a timeline, (Study Guide 2015). Henry L. Gantt, invented the Gantt chart as a useful instrument to improve scheduling and decision making, (Herrmann, 2010).



Presentation skills are also a vital step in logistics as the final execution of your campaign. Both personal and on paper presentation skills are necessary for your target publics and audience to take your message and company seriously, (Study Guide 2015). WIRES use of presentation skills can be seen on their website,, where it is evident they use clear formatting and professional language on the web page.



Helsinki FI, 1996, “What is Logistics”, Logistix Partners Oy, viewed 12 May,

Herrmann J, 2010, “How to improve Production Scheduling”, The perspectives of Taylor, Gantt and Johnson, University of Maryland, v.16, n.3, viewed 12 May 2016,

Study Guide 2015, “Module 6 – Campaign Logistics”, CQU University ,COMM11110



The Sound of Music COMM12022


In 1831, electricity became a viable use in technology when Michael Faraday created a crude power generator. With this new development we then saw the telegraph emerge. This was during the 1840’s, and words were now transformed into electrical impulse, the dots and dashes of Morse code, (Thompson, 2011)



Telegraph, Morse code


Now that we had learnt how to harness electricity we later saw Thomas Edison invent the light bulb during the late 1800’s and also, with competing rights with Marconi, came the invention of radio, (Atkinson, 2014). The invention of the radio happened in the turning of the centuries around early 1900’s and was used later that century during World War 2, (Briggs, 2011). Post-World War 2, radio became the number one form of communication. People listened to the radio for news and entertainment, listening to drama serials, comedies, talk shows and music (Prenc, 2016).



Early Radio


In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. This meant sounds and music could now be recorded and played back repeatedly, (Brunvand, 1996). These developments are the first steps of development in the dynamic history of music. We have seen music consumption dramatically change overtime. “We began with heavy 78’s, then vinyls 45’s and 33’s. After the development of vinyls music exploded and became very popular. After this we then had compact tapes and then CD’s with great sound and no more tape tangles” (Prenc, 2016). And then now in the present 2016 majority of people listen to music outside the home on the smartphones via mp3’s which are downloaded over the internet.



Atkinson N, 2014, “Who Discovered Electricity”, Universe Today, viewed 3 May 2016,

Briggs J, 2011, “Who invented the Radio?” Science/Inventions, p. 1, viewed 30 April 2016,

Brunvand J. H 1996, “Ethnomusicology”, American Folklore; an Encyclopaedia, p. 489 viewed 3 May 2016,

Prenc B 2016, interviewed by Alexandra Prenc-Sadler, 19 April 2016

Thompson J, 2011, “The Trade in News”, Communication in History, Technology, Culture, Society, sixth edition, p.96-102, Allyn & Bacon, Boston

Key Messages and Social Media – Module 5 COMM11110


Antipodean Animal Agency, is a non-profit charity which aims to assist native animals in distress and raise awareness for Australia and New Zealand Wildlife conservation. The organisations key message is; “Inspiring everyone to preserve and rehabilitate Australian and New Zealand wildlife.”

A specific aspect of wildlife conservation we are currently promoting is the horrible deforestation that occurs when planting Palm Oil forests and in the process harming our precious wildlife by destroying their natural habitats. A channel we will use to promote this campaign is Social Media.

Using Social Media can be risky business for a company as the content and conversation is not controlled, so it has the possibility to ruin a company’s reputation. But on the contrary, Social Media is vibrant, fun and compelling. And when damage control strategies are in place, this free online channel can also do wonders for a brands reputation, (Wilcox, 2013).


According to a new report at NAB overall, charitable giving in Australia has grown by 19% since December 2010. The report also concludes that the highest donations made are by those over the age of 65, donating more money and more often than any other age groups (Oster, 2014). Therefore, our target audience at Antipodean Animal Agency will be generation Y in all regions of Australia and New Zealand.

Generation Y is known for their excessive online consumption and obsession with Social Media, (Andrus, 2015). And this is part of the reasoning behind choosing Social Message as a key platform in promoting Antipodean Animal Agency’s key message; “Inspiring everyone to preserve and rehabilitate Australian and New Zealand wildlife.” to target audience generation Y.



Andrus A, 2015, “Gen Z vs. Gen Y: Does the hype add up?”, Sproutsocial, viewed 28 April 2016,

Oster A, 2014, “NAB Charitable giving index”, In depth report February 2014, p.1-2, viewed 28 April 2016,

Wilcox, D, Cameron, G, Reber, B, Shin, J 2013, “Social Media”, Think; Public Relations, 2013 edition, p. 251, Pearson

Revolutions of Print COMM12022

During the preprint era only a small percent of the population had access to books, such as the noble and wealthy and nearly all scholarly activities were confined to monasteries. Before the printing press was developed any writings or drawings had to be painstakingly copied by hand. Scribes would spend hour’s meticulously copying manuscripts by hand in rooms set aside for writing, known as; scriptoria, (Odin, 1997).


Johannes Gutenberg

The first form of printing was called ‘Movable-Type Printing’, developed in China A.D 1040 using block types and ceramics. However, printing didn’t hit Europe until Late 1430’s where Johannes Gutenberg of Germany developed the a unique type of printing press using wooden blocks to press ink onto paper and then further developing this process to use metal blocks. Gutenberg printed his first book in 1450, a brief Latin grammar for students, (Clay, 2009).


Printing Press,

Not only did the revolution of print have significant influence on the Protestant Reformation through printed books affecting literacy, education and religion, but print also made possible the widespread dissemination of news. News was previously circulated by word of mouth, however, with the advent of printed news, individuals now had widespread access to information such as, political and economical news. (Crowley, 2011).


1950’s newspaper,

Through all these historical developments in print we now come to today where the use of 3D printing has begun. Through a manufacturing process, defusing materials such as metals and plastics we can now print whole objects. The use of 3D printing has revolutionised health care and has been used to print organs, prosthetics and implants, (Ventola, 2014).




Clay H, 2009, “Gutenberg and the Printing Revolution in Europe”, Herodotus and Thucydides: Inventing History, Vol.24 No.3, viewed 28 April 2016,

Crowley, D, Heyer, P 2011, “The Print Revolution”, Comunication in History, Technology, Culture, Society, sixth edition, p.65-66, Allyn & Bacon, Boston

Odin J, 1997, “Technologies of Writing”, Printing Revolution and its impact on Social and Cultural formations, University of Hawaii, viewed 28 April 2016,

Ventola C, 2014, “Medical applications for 3D printing: current and projected uses”, P & T, viewed 28 April 2016,



PR Campaign – Planning COMM11110

Effective public relation’s comprises of four crucial steps: 1. Research, 2. Planning, 3. Communication, 4. Measurement. Research helps understand the needs of publics; planning involves setting goals and objectives; communication creates strategies in which to project the message and measurement is the overall evaluation, (Wilcox, 2013). This four step strategy can also be known as RACE; Research, action, communication and evaluation, (Wilcox, 2008).




A crucial part in planning your PR campaign is identifying you target publics. Your target publics are those groups or individuals you wish to communicate the message to, (Sheenan, 2014). It is their attitudes and behaviours that the originator of the communication wishes to affect in some way, (Gregory, 2015). Identifying your target publics can usually be determined by demographics such as age, income, social strata, education, existing ownership or consumption of specific products and residence, (Wilcox, 2013). These publics could eventually become important stakeholders in the organisation amongst shareholders, employees and existing customers.

It is also essential to have a thorough knowledge of what you want and what you are looking to achieve through your PR campaign and to have a realistic timeframe in place before commencing. Strategies such as SMART can help construct a clear picture of the steps ahead. Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timed, (Goodman, 2015).



SMART planning strategy,


In order to distinguish how far in advance you should begin the plan, a timeline needs to be established. Creating a timeline allows you to determine each stage of the campaign and how long it should take you. This also gives your client an idea of what to expect, (Roderick, 2014).



Goodman, K 2015, “9 Steps to a successful PR Camaign”, Find the edge marketing mentors, viewed 14 April 2016,

Gregory, A 2015, “Public Relations in context – Publics and Stakeholders”, Planning and Managing Public Relations Campaigns, p. 23, viewed 18 April,

Roderick, A 2014, “Developing a successful Public Relations and Marketing plan in 6 easy steps”, PR Campaigns, viewed 14 April 2016,

Sheenan, M 2014, “Target Publics”, Introduction to Public Relations campaign, Oxford University Press p.5, viewed 18 April 2016,

Wilcox, D, Cameron, G, Reber, B, Shin, J 2013, “The four essential steps of effective Public Relations”, Think; Public Relations, 2013 edition, p. 14, Pearson

Wilcox, D, Cameron, G 2008, “Public relations: Strategies and tactics” 9th ed, New York, NY: Allyn & Bacon.


The Age of Manuscripts COMM12022

A manuscript is a physical artefact – a handwritten copy of one or more texts.” – Vivian Law, 2003.

Medieval manuscript, source;

Writing made it possible the storage and retrieval of vast amounts of information allowing the earliest civilisations to achieve a size and complexity unparalleled previously. The earliest writing is estimated to date back as early as 3100 B.C in Egypt and that of China from 1200 B.C. These manuscripts of what was said to be the first developments of writing spread from culture to distant culture, gradually reaching Europe 600-700 years after China, (Crowley, 2011).

Most medieval manuscripts were made of parchment (animal skin), but during the second century, China began to produce writing paper with hemp or bark fibres. Although not as durable as parchment, paper was much cheaper and more obtainable, (Law, 2003).

Before the advent of print in the 15th century, manuscripts were handwritten and must rely on scribes or copyists for more than one copy of the original text, (Edward, 1996). You can just imagine how time-consuming this would have been and on top of that traveling (which in those days meant walking) with the manuscripts to the next town so more scribes can copy the text. The spread of literacy was a long and gradual process.

Through the heightened interest in literacy and intellectual life, the Greeks propelled the idea of having somewhere to store all the books. Public and private libraries begun to flourish, (Moorshead, 2008). At this time in history during the 15th to 18th centuries, it seems books were chained to shelves or reading desks to prevent theft, (Shaney, 2003).


Chained library, source;


Crowley, D, Heyer, P 2011, “The Development of writing”, Comunication in History, Technology, Culture, Society, sixth edition, p.30, Allyn & Bacon, Boston

Edward, G 1996, “ The Manuscript culture of the middle ages” Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 51-53, viewed 14 April 2016,%20Manuscript%20Culture.html

Law, V 2003, “Text and Manuscript”, The History of Linguistics in Europe: Plato to 1600, Cambridge University Press, p.142, viewed 14 April 2016

Moorshead, H 2008, “ Survivor: The History of the Library”, History Magazine, viewed 14 April 2016,

Shaney, 2003, “Chain Reaction: The practice of chaining books in European libraries”, Shaney says, viewd 14 April 2016,